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Standards & Test method
Standards & Test method

 

 

 

 

ISO 472 : Biodegradable Plastics


 
- Biodegradable and degradable
- Degrade into CO2, water, biomass
: limitlessness about 5 years

 

 

ASTM D 6954 : Oxo-Biodegradable plastics


 
- Oxidation: heat, UV, moisture
- MW reduction
 
  Test
- Tier 1 : - Oxidation (Heat, UV etc.)
  => VOC, MW
  => Fragmentation
 
- Tier 2 : Biodegradable test
 
- Tier 3 : Toxicity test
 
* No biodegradable period
  => Limit within 180 days.

 

 

 

 

Application in Japan


 

  Replacement of plastics - Carbon dioxide reduction
 
Classification
Contents
Mark
Organization
グリンプラ
(Eco Mark)June, 2000
Bio degradable 45% or more & Non organic material 5% or less in product

- Material content(Recipie), Biodegradable certificate, harmless data etc.
Japan Bio Plastics Association
Biomass Plastics MarkJuly ,20065
Biomass content 25% or more in product

-Material content(Recipie), Biodegradable certificate, harmless data etc.
Japan Bio Plastics Association
Biomass Mark
Not setting the lowest limit content
바이오매스 사용 촉진 마크
Japan organic material Association
 
 

 

Biomass Plastics Degradation Mechanism


 

What is Degradable Plastics?


Degradable plastic is defined as plastic properties which make it possible to break down into digestible component as H2O and CO2. Composite-degradation in plastics is caused by more than two degradation mechanisms among four categories bellow.

BEDPS (Bio/Environmentally Degradable Polymer Society) categorized the degradable plastic into four as follow:

(1) Photo-Degradable Plastic :
Photo-degradation in plastics is caused by the ultra violet (UV) component of solar radiation.

(2) Oxidative-Degradable Plastics :
Oxidant-Degradation in plastic is caused by environmental effect as temperature.

(3) Hydrolytically-Degradable Plastics :
Degradable plastic through hydrolysis under specific acidic or basic conditions.

(4) Bio-Degradable Plastics :
Plastic with the ability to break down by biological means, into the raw materials of nature and disappear into the environment.

 

Mechanism

 

The degradability of the plastics depends on the character of macromolecular not on the substance material in the plastic. Microorganism, as the rate of degradability is inverse with the weight of co-polyesters, breaks down co-polyesters and polyesters. (Witt et al., 1995, 1997 BASF AG)

 

There are two major degradation methods on plastic break-down; non-biological degradation and biological degradation. Non-biological degradation means plastic breakdown by Hydrolytically-Degradation, photosynthesis, or active molecular of Ozone and Radiation.

 

Biological degradation entirely depends on the properties of the molecules, especially bacteria and enzymes. The final products of the degradation process are simply carbon dioxide and water. The DLT additive is not water soluble or toxic, making the material safe for disposal in landfill.

 

 

 

 


sub3_6_img5-영문 copy.jpg

 
 
 

Degradation Mechanism

 

Degradation means a type of a chemical change in which a polymeric substance breaks down into simpler, smaller weight substances as the result of oxidation, hydrolysis, heat, sunlight, attack by enzymes or microbial action.

 

 

- First step:
the rupture of the degradable molecule

 


Classification
Types
Notes
Biodegradable Polymer
Cellulose, Cellulose derivatives, Polycaprolactone (PCL),Polymestor(PLA),Fatty acid ester, Starch, PHA, PHB, agriculture by-product(Chaff Cutter, Chaff etc.)etc. Natural Biomass
Stabilizers
Antioxidant like (Benzene Fluticasone propanoate) Delayed oxidation reaction
Chemolysis Catalyst
Oxidation reaction catalysts such as (1 Transition Metal, 2 Transition Metal, Antioxidant, Aromatic Ketone, Organic Acid).  
Oxidizing Component
Unsaturated fatty acid, Fatty acid ester, Natural Fat, Natural or synthetic rubber or combination of both A double bond
 
 

 

 

Second step:

chemical-degradation of oxidization by sunlight, heat, oxygen, compound and etc. leading to a lowering of the molecular weight and a resultant loss of strength and durability.

Third step

Complete degradation by microorganism and enzyme (the eventual result of the degradation is the release of minute quantities of carbon dioxide, water and biomass)

 

 

 

Biomass Plastics testing lab & Oxo-biodegradable test results


 
Experiment and Test Result

Photo-degradation test of polypropylene film that multi-degradable M/B added

Thermal degradation test of polypropylene film that multi-degradable M/B added

※ Test institute & method : Korea Apparel Testing & Research Institute(KOLAS certified), Sungkyunkwan University

※ Test Result: Degradation measurement by UV based on ASTM D 3826, elongation change measurement at 58±2℃ and relative humidity 85% based on ASTM D 5510

※ Korean Society of Food Science & Technology(KOSFOST)

Report of research "Multi-degradation Research & experiment of Plastics", June 2003

Title of a thesis: Food packing film production & Degradation of multi-degradable plastics

 
Safety Test Result
Classification
Unit
Standard
Result of Products
MCC-101 MCC-102 MCC-103
Heavy metals mg/L 1.0<
(as lead)
Suitable Suitable Suitable
Consumption of potassium permanganate mg/L 10< 0.9 0.3 1.3
Lead
 
mg/kg 100< Suitable Suitable Suitable
Residue after evaporation mg/L 30< 3.0 4.0 4.0
Cadmium
 
mg/kg 100< Suitable Suitable Suitable
Assessment     Suitable Suitable Suitable

 

※ Test institute : Korea Health Industry Development Institute (2002), Seoul Metropolitan Government Research Institute of Public Health &Environment (2002)

 

Outdoor experiment of mulching polypropylene film that multi-degradable M/B added

※ Test institute & method : mimic mulching in Sogang University and landfill in Sungkyunkwan University

Growth of fungi on polyprophylene film that multi-degradable M/B added

※ Test institute & method : Sungkyunkwan University

※ Test result : Active growth of fungi on the surface of MCC's degradable film after 60 days based on ASTM G 21(SEM pic.-1000 times), 37˚C, relative humidity 85%.

 

Growth of fungi on polyethylene film that multi-degradable M/B added

※ Test institute & method : Sungkyunkwan University

※ Test result : Active growth of fungi on the surface of MCC's degradable film after 60 days based on ASTM G 21(SEM pic.-1000 times), 37˚C, relative humidity 85%.

 

Growth of microbe on polyolefin film that multi-degradable M/B added

※ Test institute & method : Sungkyunkwan University

※ Test result : Active growth of fungi on the surface of MCC's degradable film after 60 days based on ASTM G 21(SEM pic.-200 times), 37˚C, relative humidity 85%.

 

Molecular weight decrease test

※ Test institute & method : SAMSUNG ATOFINA(KOLAS certified), molecular weight measurement with GPC

※ Test result : MW of LDPE film decreased 7,000~8,000 by thermal degradation and 10,000~20,000 by UV irradiation(Initial MW of LDPE film is 200,000 over)

※ Microorganisms can degrades low polymerized film → validation of biodegradability

 

Infra-red spectroscopy

※ Test institute & method : SAMSUNG ATOFINA(KOLAS certified), carbonyl absorption band measurement with FT-IR

※ Test result : Carbonyl absorption region appear at 1710~1750cm-1 after thermal degradation and UV irradiation

※ Carbonyl is the middle product of plastic degradation → validation of degradability

 

 

 

Microbe growth test of bio-based film



1.jpg



 

*Reference*
-“Manufacturing Multi-degradable Food Packaging Films and Their Degradability” Korean J. Food Sci. Technol, 35(5), p877-883, 2003.
-Chung, M.S., Lee, W.H., You, Y.S., Kim, H.Y., and Park, K.M. 2003. Degradability of Multi-Degradable HDPE and LDPE Food Packaging Films. Food Sci. Biotechnol., 12(5) : 548-553.
-”Study on the Properties of Low density polyethylene blends films” Korean J. Food Sci. Technol, 2011

 

 

 

Thermo & photo degradable test

 

 

2.jpg


 

 

 

*Reference*
-“Multi-degradable Food Packaging Plastics and the Future Prospect of Their Practical Use” Food Engineering Progress. 7(3), p134-140. 2003.8
- Chung, M.S., Lee, W.H., You, Y.S., Kim, H.Y., Park, K.M., and Lee, S.Y. 2006. Assessment and Applications of Multi-Degradable Polyethylene Films as Packaging Materials. Food Sci. Biotechnol., 15(1) : 5-12.

 

 

 

Landfill test

 

 

3.jpg


 

 

 

Mulching Test

 

Mulching film

 

- Biodegradable period control → growth period of crops
- Biodegradable period is affected by Climate, Temperature, Soil, Orgnic matter etc.

 

 

4.jpg


 

 

 

 
Microbiology growth test
ASTM G20 38℃, 30days
SEM 1000 fold
Mulching test
RAD field experiment
Rad pepper (7months)
Plastics
Bio-basedplastics
Bio degradableplastics

 

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